health topics

Abdominal Pain, Age 11 and Younger

Abdominal Pain, Age 12 and Older

Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding

Abscessed Tooth

Absorbent products for urinary incontinence

Achilles tendon rupture: Should I have surgery?

ACL injury: Should I have knee surgery?

Acne: Should I see my doctor?

Acne: Should I take isotretinoin for severe acne?

Acute bronchitis: Should I take antibiotics?

Addison's Disease

ADHD: Should my child take medicine for ADHD?

Alcohol and Drug Problems

Allergic Reaction


Allergies to Insect Stings

Allergies: Should I take allergy shots?

Allergies: Should I take shots for insect sting allergies?

Allergy shots (immunotherapy) for allergic rhinitis

Allergy shots (immunotherapy) for asthma

Allogeneic stem cell transplant

Alzheimer's disease: Should I take medicines?

Alzheimer's or other dementia: Should I move my relative into long-term care?


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Anal Fissure

Anger, Hostility, and Violent Behavior

Angioplasty for coronary artery disease

Angioplasty for peripheral arterial disease of the legs

Angioplasty with stent placement for heart attack and unstable angina

Animal and Human Bites

Ankylosing Spondylitis


Aortic valve stenosis: Should I have surgery?


Arm Injuries

Arm Problems, Noninjury

Arthritis: Should I have knee replacement surgery?

Arthritis: Should I have shoulder replacement surgery?

Asperger's Syndrome


Asthma action plan

Atherectomy for coronary artery disease

Atrial fibrillation: Should I take anticoagulants to prevent stroke?

Atrial fibrillation: Should I try electrical cardioversion?


Autologous stem cell transplant

Autopsy: Should I have an autopsy done on my loved one?

Back and Neck Pain

Back Problems and Injuries

Barrier methods of birth control

Bartholin Gland Cyst

Bed-wetting: Should I do something about my child's bed-wetting?

Bed-wetting: Should my child see a doctor?

Behavioral methods for urinary incontinence

Behavioral therapies for urinary incontinence in men

Bell's Palsy

Binge Eating Disorder




Blocked tear ducts: Should my baby have a probing procedure?

Blood transfusions for sickle cell disease

Blood transfusions: Should I bank blood before surgery?

Body Piercing Problems

Bone marrow transplant for sickle cell disease

Botulinum toxin (Botox)

Bowel Obstruction

Brace (orthotic) treatment for scoliosis

Brandt-Daroff exercise for vertigo

Breast cancer risk: Should I have a BRCA gene test?

Breast cancer: Should I have breast reconstruction after a mastectomy?

Breast cancer: Should I have breast-conserving surgery or a mastectomy for early-stage cancer?

Breast cancer: Should I have chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer?

Breast cancer: What should I do if I'm at high risk?

Breast Engorgement

Breast Problems

Breast-feeding: Should I breast-feed my baby?

Breath-Holding Spells

Breech Position and Breech Birth

Bruises and Blood Spots Under the Skin

Bunions: Should I have surgery?


Burns to the Eye


Calluses and Corns


Carpal tunnel syndrome: Should I have surgery?

Cataracts: Should I have surgery?

Catheter ablation for a fast heart rate

Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

Catheters for urinary incontinence in men


Central venous catheter

Change in Heartbeat

Chemonucleolysis for herniated disc

Chest Problems

Children's Health

Chronic Lung Disease in Infants

Circumcision: Should I keep my son's penis natural?


Cleft Lip

Cleft Palate

Clinical trials

Clotting factor replacement for hemophilia

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for eating disorders

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pain management

Cold Sores

Cold Temperature Exposure

Colon cancer: Which screening test should I have?

Colon Polyps

Color Blindness

Complementary medicine: Should I use complementary medicine?

Confusion, Memory Loss, and Altered Alertness

Congenital Hydrocele

Congenital Hydrocephalus

Constipation, Age 11 and Younger

Constipation, Age 12 and Older

Contact lenses

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea


Coughs, Age 11 and Younger

Coughs, Age 12 and Older

Counseling for HIV infection




Crying, Age 3 and Younger

Cryotherapy (cryosurgery) for genital warts

Cushing's Syndrome


Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease


Depression: Should I stop taking my antidepressant?

Depression: Should I take an antidepressant?

Depression: Should I take antidepressants while I'm pregnant?

Depression: Should my child take medicine to treat depression?

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip


Diabetes: Should I get an insulin pump?

Diabetes: Should I get pregnant?

Diabetes-Related High and Low Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diaper Rash

Diarrhea, Age 11 and Younger

Diarrhea, Age 12 and Older

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Disease and Injury Prevention

Dizziness: Lightheadedness and Vertigo

Domestic Abuse

Drug Allergies

Dupuytren's disease: Should I have hand surgery?

E. coli Infection

Ear Canal Problems (Swimmer's Ear)

Ear infection: Should I give my child antibiotics?

Ear Problems and Injuries, Age 11 and Younger

Ear Problems and Injuries, Age 12 and Older

Ear problems: Should my child be treated for fluid buildup in the middle ear?


Elbow Injuries

Elbow Problems, Noninjury

Electrical cardioversion (defibrillation) for a fast heart rate

Electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation

Electrical stimulation for urinary incontinence

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Electrolysis for removing hair


End of life: Should I stop treatment that prolongs my life?


End-of-life care: Should I have artificial hydration and nutrition?

End-of-life care: Should I receive CPR and life support?

End-of-life care: Should I stop kidney dialysis?

Endometriosis: Should I have a hysterectomy and oophorectomy?

Endometriosis: Should I use hormone therapy?

Enlarged prostate: Should I have surgery?

Enlarged prostate: Should I take medicine?

Erection problems: Should I take medicine?

Erection problems: Should I try injection treatments?

Exercise and physical therapy for tennis elbow

Exposure to Sexually Transmitted Diseases

External cephalic version (version) for breech position

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for kidney stones

Eye Injuries

Eye Problems, Noninjury

Eyelid Problems (Blepharitis)

Facial Injuries

Facial Problems, Noninjury

Family therapy

Feeling Depressed

Female Genital Problems

Fertility problems: Should I be tested?

Fertility problems: Should I have a tubal procedure or in vitro fertilization?

Fever Seizures

Fever, Age 11 and Younger

Fever, Age 12 and Older

Fibrocystic Breasts

Fifth Disease

Filler injections

Fillings (restorations)

Finger, Hand, and Wrist Injuries

Finger, Hand, and Wrist Problems, Noninjury

Fishhook Injuries

Fitness and Exercise

Flu shots: Should I get a flu shot?

Flu: Should I take antiviral medicine?

Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia


Gallstones: Should I have gallbladder surgery?

Gamete and zygote intrafallopian transfer (GIFT and ZIFT) for infertility


Gas, Bloating, and Burping

GERD: Which treatment should I use?

Groin Problems and Injuries

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Hair loss: Should I take medicine to regrow hair?

Hammer, Claw, and Mallet Toes

Hammer, claw, or mallet toe: Should I have surgery?

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

Head Injury, Age 3 and Younger

Head Injury, Age 4 and Older



Headaches: Should I take medicine to prevent migraines?

Headaches: Should I take prescription medicine for tension headaches?

Healthy aging: Is it time to stop driving?

Healthy Eating

Hearing loss: Should I get a hearing aid?

Heart attack: Should I take daily aspirin to prevent a heart attack or stroke?

Heart disease risk: Should I have a coronary calcium scan?

Heart disease: Should I have an angiogram?

Heart disease: Should I have angioplasty for stable angina?

Heart disease: Should I have bypass surgery?

Heart failure: Should I get a pacemaker?

Heart failure: Should I get an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)?

Heart Problems

Heart problems: Should I have catheter ablation?

Heart valve problems: Should I choose a mechanical valve or tissue valve to replace my heart valve?


Heat-Related Illnesses



Hemophilia: Should I have regularly scheduled or on-demand clotting factor replacement?

Hemorrhoids: Which treatment should I use?

Hepatitis B and C: Should I be tested?

Hepatitis B: Should I take antiviral medicine for chronic hepatitis B?

Hepatitis C: Should I take antiviral medicine?

Herniated disc: Should I have surgery?

Hiatal Hernia

High blood pressure: Should I take medicine?

High cholesterol: Should I take statins?

Hip Fracture

Hip Injuries, Age 11 and Younger

Hip Injuries, Age 12 and Older

Hip Problems, Age 11 and Younger

Hip Problems, Age 12 and Older

Hirschsprung's Disease

HIV: Should I start taking antiretroviral medicines for HIV infection?

HPV: Should my daughter get the vaccine?

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy


Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in People Without Diabetes

Hysterectomy and oophorectomy: Should I use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)?

Hysterectomy: Should I also have my ovaries removed?

Immunotherapy for allergies to insect stings

In vitro fertilization for infertility

Induction abortion

Infant and Toddler Health

Infertility: Should I have treatment?

Infrared photocoagulation for hemorrhoids

Inguinal hernia: Should I have surgery now, or should I wait?

Insect Bites and Stings and Spider Bites

Insemination procedures for infertility


Insomnia: Should I take sleeping pills?

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection for infertility

Intrauterine device (IUD) for birth control

Intrauterine fetal blood transfusion for Rh disease


Iron Deficiency Anemia

Irritable bowel syndrome: Should I have tests for IBS symptoms?

Jaundice in Newborns (Hyperbilirubinemia)

Kawasaki Disease

Ketogenic diet for epilepsy

Kidney failure: What type of dialysis should I have?

Klinefelter Syndrome

Knee Problems and Injuries


Lactose Intolerance


Laser photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy

Laser treatment for varicose veins

Leg Injuries

Leg Problems, Noninjury


Low back pain: Should I have an MRI?

Low back pain: Should I have spinal manipulation?

Male Genital Problems and Injuries

Marine Stings and Scrapes

Mastitis While Breast-Feeding

Measles (Rubeola)

Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women

Meniscus Tear

Meniscus tear: Should I have a diagnostic test (MRI or arthroscopy)?

Meniscus tear: Should I have surgery?

Men's Health

Menstrual Cramps


Miscarriage: Should I have treatment to complete a miscarriage?

Missed or Irregular Periods

Molar Pregnancy

Molluscum Contagiosum

Motion Sickness

Mouth and Dental Injuries

Mouth Problems, Noninjury

Multiple pregnancy: Should I consider a multifetal pregnancy reduction?

Multiple Pregnancy: Twins or More

Multiple sclerosis: Should I start taking medicines for MS?


Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

Nail infection: Should I take antifungal pills?

Nail Problems and Injuries

Nausea and Vomiting, Age 11 and Younger

Nausea and Vomiting, Age 12 and Older

Neck Problems and Injuries

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Necrotizing Fasciitis (Flesh-Eating Bacteria)

Nerve block for pain relief

Nervous System Problems

Nonsurgical nail removal for fungal nail infections

Nose Injuries


Obesity: Should I have weight-loss surgery?

Obesity: Should I take weight-loss medicine?

Obesity: Should I use a diet plan to lose weight?

Objects in the Ear

Objects in the Eye

Objects in the Nose

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Should I take medicine for OCD?

Osteoarthritis: Should I have hip replacement surgery?

Osteoporosis: Should I have a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test?

Osteoporosis: Should I take bisphosphonate medicines?

Ovarian cancer: Should I have my ovaries removed to prevent ovarian cancer?

Oxygen treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Pacemaker for atrial fibrillation

Pacemaker for bradycardia

Panic disorder: Should I take medicine?

Pap test: Should I have colposcopy if my Pap test shows minor cell changes?

Pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises for urinary incontinence in women

Pelvic organ prolapse: Should I have surgery?

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy for kidney stones


Peripheral arterial disease: Should I have surgery?

Peritoneal dialysis

Phenylketonuria (PKU)


Photodynamic therapy for age-related macular degeneration

Phototherapy for atopic dermatitis

Phototherapy for psoriasis

Physical Abuse

Physical rehabilitation for ACL injuries

Physical therapy for TM disorders

Pilonidal Disease


Placenta Abruptio

Placenta Previa

Plantar fasciitis: Should I have surgery for heel pain?

PMS: Should I try an SSRI medicine for my symptoms?


Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis

Postoperative Problems

Post-Polio Syndrome

Pregnancy and Childbirth

Pregnancy: Should I bank my baby's umbilical cord blood?

Pregnancy: Should I have an early fetal ultrasound?

Pregnancy: Should I have an epidural during childbirth?

Pregnancy: Should I have CVS (chorionic villus sampling)?

Pregnancy: Should I have the maternal serum triple or quadruple test?

Pregnancy: Should I try vaginal childbirth after a past C-section (VBAC)?

Pregnancy-Related Problems

Pressure Sores

Problems After Delivery of Your Baby

Prostate cancer screening: Should I have a PSA test?

Prostate cancer: Should I have radiation or surgery for localized prostate cancer?

Psoralen plus ultraviolet light therapy (PUVA) for atopic dermatitis

Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Puncture Wounds

Pyloric Stenosis

Quitting smoking: Should I use medicine?


Radiation therapy for bladder cancer

Radiation therapy for cancer pain

Radiation therapy for endometrial cancer

Radiation therapy for lymphoma and leukemia

Radiation therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer

Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Radiation therapy for testicular cancer

Radiation treatment for melanoma

Radioactive iodine

Radioactive iodine for hyperthyroidism

Rash, Age 11 and Younger

Rash, Age 12 and Older

Raynaud's Phenomenon

Rectal Problems

Rectal Prolapse

Respiratory Problems, Age 11 and Younger

Respiratory Problems, Age 12 and Older

Restless Legs Syndrome

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Reye Syndrome

Ringing in the Ears (Tinnitus)

Root planing and scaling for gum disease

Rotator cuff problems: Should I have surgery?

Rubber band ligation for hemorrhoids

Rubella (German Measles)

Scalp Problems

Sclerotherapy for varicose veins


Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seborrheic Keratosis


Semont and Epley maneuvers for vertigo

Senior Health

Sexual Abuse or Assault (Rape)

Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shoulder Problems and Injuries

Sinusitis: Should I have surgery?

Sinusitis: Should I take antibiotics?

Sjögren's Syndrome

Skin Changes

Sleep apnea: Should I have a sleep study?

Sleep apnea: Should I have surgery?

Sleep Problems

Sleep Problems, Age 12 and Older

Snake and Lizard Bites

Social Anxiety Disorder

Sore Throat

Sore throat: Should I take antibiotics?

Spina Bifida

Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain


Stroke: Should I have carotid endarterectomy?

Stroke: Should I move my loved one into long-term care?


Styes and Chalazia

Suicidal Thoughts or Threats


Swallowed Objects


Swollen Glands and Other Lumps Under the Skin

Tattoo Problems

Tay-Sachs Disease

Teen Health

Temper Tantrums

Tendon Injury (Tendinopathy)

Tennis elbow: Should I have surgery?

Testicular cancer: Which treatment should I have for stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer after my surgery?

Testicular cancer: Which treatment should I have for stage I seminoma testicular cancer after my surgery?



Tick Bites

Tinea Versicolor

TM disorder: Should I have surgery for jaw pain?

Toe, Foot, and Ankle Injuries

Toe, Foot, and Ankle Problems, Noninjury


Tonsillitis: Should my child have a tonsillectomy?

Toothache and Gum Problems

Tourette's Disorder

Ulcerative colitis: Should I have surgery?

Umbilical Hernia in Children

Umbilical hernia: Should my child have surgery?

Undescended Testicle


Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 11 and Younger

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 12 and Older

Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE)

Uterine fibroids: Should I have surgery?

Uterine fibroids: Should I have uterine fibroid embolization?

Uterine fibroids: Should I use GnRH-a therapy?

Vacuum devices for erection problems

Vaginal delivery in breech position and breech birth

Vaginal pessaries

Vaginal yeast infection: Should I treat it myself?

Vagus nerve stimulator for epilepsy

Venous Skin Ulcer

Vestibular Neuritis

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

Von Willebrand's Disease

Warts: Should I treat warts?

Watchful waiting (surveillance) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Watchful waiting for prostate cancer

Weakness and Fatigue

Weight Management

Weight management: Should I use over-the-counter diet aids?

West Nile Virus

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Wisdom Tooth Problems

Women's Health

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